Combination Skill

Combination Skill  #

Introduction  #

The Combination Skill safety skillSafety skillA method which improves the ability to interact with water in a way that increases the likelihood of avoiding and/or recovering from a hazardous aquatic situation. combines the following competencies: Safe Entry CompetencySafe Entry CompetencySafe Entry Competency is the knowledge, skill, and experience necessary to enter aquatic environments without harming or placing inappropriate risk on oneself or others. Physical abilities associated with this competency include being able to lower, step, jump, dive, or otherwise move into the water, and to surface after entry. Cognitive abilities include determining how to enter a body of water safely by identifying, understanding, and analyzing characteristics of different aquatic environments. , Safe Exit CompetencySafe Exit CompetencySafe Exit Competency is the knowledge, skill, and experience necessary to exit aquatic environments without harming or placing inappropriate risk on oneself or others. Physical abilities associated with this competency include being able to walk, climb, lift, pull, or otherwise move out of the water. Cognitive abilities include determining how to exit a body of water safely by identifying, understanding, and evaluating the benefits and challenges posed by specific locations and features, as well as being able to create a plan for exiting both before and after entering an aquatic environment. , Breath Control CompetencyBreath Control CompetencyBreath Control Competency is the knowledge, skill, and experience necessary to breathe effectively in a controlled manner without using excessive energy, interfering with other movements, or compromising body position while in the water. Physical abilities associated with this competency include the physical exchange of air and keeping the body in a position at the surface so that the exchange of air can occur. Cognitive abilities include determining when to breathe and when to hold the breath. Affective abilities include responding to stimuli and situations in a calm manner with the face both above and below the surface of the water. , Stationary Surface CompetencyStationary Surface CompetencyStationary Surface Competency is the knowledge, skill, and experience necessary to remain at one location on the surface of the water for sustained periods of time for both strategic and energy-conservation purposes. Understanding the relationship between breathing and buoyancy and utilizing that relationship to affect buoyancy and body position are core components of being able to stay at the surface for extended periods of time. Physical abilities associated with this competency include being able to float in more than one position and being able to generate upward (vertical) propulsion with the arms and legs to keep the head above the surface. Cognitive abilities include understanding whether a floating skill or a treading skill is best suited for a given situation and set of conditions, and determining which specific floating or treading technique may be the most effective for the task at hand. , Orientation CompetencyOrientation CompetencyOrientation Competency is the knowledge, skill, and experience necessary to transition from one body position to another, to change direction of travel, to keep one’s bearings, and to locate and navigate to a desired location. Physical abilities associated with this competency include being able to roll, tuck, turn, and spin to move the body into different positions or face different directions, both on and under the surface, while remaining stationary and while propelling. Cognitive abilities include monitoring and comparing one’s current position relative to the immediate surrounding, locating known safe areas, and planning a navigation path in desired directions. , Propulsion CompetencyPropulsion CompetencyPropulsion Competency is the knowledge, skill, and experience necessary to travel through the water using the movement of limbs in a controlled and efficient manner. Physical abilities associated with this competency include being able to perform gross and fine motor control patterns necessary to swim using different techniques in more than one body position. Cognitive abilities include determining which body position and technique is best suited for the conditions and circumstances of the task at hand, and an awareness of energy expenditure to regulate pace or speed. , and Risk CompetencyRisk CompetencyRisk Competency is the knowledge, skill, and experience necessary to understand, analyze, and assess the risks of aquatic environments, and to be able to cope with risk by applying risk-management strategies. Cognitive abilities associated with this competency include problem solving, analyzing options, and determining how best to avoid or reduce risks in a given situation. Affective abilities include responding to stimuli and situations in a calm manner and an awareness of how emotions can affect decision making. . Combination Skill teaches students how to perform multiple physical skills sequentially that may be required to avoid or recover from a hazardous situation. Since over half of all drownings occur after an unexpected entry into the water, learning how to recover to the surface from a submerged position and determining a course of action in quick succession is a fundamental aquatic survival skill that can be taught and practiced. Skill combination tests should start with the simulation of an unexpected entry into a deep body of water where pushing off the pool bottom or other forms of assistance would be limited.

Description  #

The Combination Skill safety skill is defined by the following body posturePostureThe particular way the body is held while doing an activity. Mobility specialists define posture as the way you position your body or arrange your limbs, such as “to stand up straight with your shoulders back and your chin up.” , arm formsFormThe visible shape or configuration of something. Mobility specialists define form as an arrangement of the elements in a composition; the way something (or someone) is shaped or arranged. , leg forms, breathing, and timing characteristics and features.

Knowledge objective  #

Identify why the ability to combine multiple skills is an important skill for water safety.

Combination Skill Description  #

Component sequence

  1. Start from submerged position
  2. Recover to surface
  3. Tread for 10 seconds (advanced level: 30 seconds)
  4. Swim on backBack / On backA supineSupineSituated on the back, or dorsal, surface of the body with the face and chest upward.
    body position such that the face and chest are oriented up. “On back” means to have a supine body position on or near the surface of the water.
    or on sideSide / On sideA lateralLateralSituated on one side of the body; one side facing upward and one side downward.
    body position such that one hip and shoulder is oriented up and the opposite hip and shoulder are oriented down. “On side” means to have the body positioned on one side and on or near the surface of the water.
    for 5 yards to float location (advanced level: 12.5 yards)
  5. Survival float for 10 seconds (advanced level: 30 seconds)
  6. Locate and change direction to orient toward exit location; change of direction may be performed before, during, or after the float
  7. Swim on frontFront / On frontA proneProneSituated on the front, or ventral, surface of the body with the face and chest downward.
    body position such that the face and chest are oriented down. “On front” means to have a prone body position on or near the surface of the water.
    for 5 yards to exit location (advanced level: 12.5 yards)
  8. Perform Safe Exit

Breathing

  1. Breathing controlled during each component

Assessment  #

Test course  #

This test uses an out-and-back course. Start at the exit location. Perform one bob. Tread for 10 seconds (advanced level: 30 seconds). Orient toward the float location. Swim on back or side for 5 yards (advanced level: 12.5 yards) to the float location. Stop and survival float for 10 seconds (advanced level: 30 seconds). Orient toward the exit location. Swim on front for 5 yards (advanced level: 12.5 yards) to the exit location and perform a Safe Exit.

Scoring  #

The following scoring rubricScoring rubricA guide that includes rating scales and descriptions of one or more criteria used to evaluate the performance of a skill. lists the gradients of key requirements and deficiencies that provide an overall description of different competence levels. A single score is assigned based on the instructor’s judgment of the student’s performance.

Combination Skill Scoring Rubric  #

0

Exhibits any of the following:

  • Needs assistance to recover to the surface
  • Does not swim for 5 yards to the float or exit location

1

Performs all of the following:

  • Recovers to the surface
  • Swims for 5 yards to the float or exit location

Exhibits any of the following:

  • Does not change direction toward the exit location
  • Does not exit safely

OR Exhibits two or more of the following:

  • Treads for less than 10 seconds (advanced level: 30 seconds)
  • Does not swim on back or side for 5 yards (advanced level: 12.5 yards) to the float location
  • Floats for less than 10 seconds (advanced level: 30 seconds)
  • Needs verbal or visual assistance locating the exit
  • Does not swim on front for 5 yards (advanced level: 12.5 yards) to the exit location
  • Breathing is not controlled during each component
  • Does not perform skills in specified order; instructor may provide verbal assistance reminding the student of the skill order

2

Performs all of the following:

  • Recovers to the surface
  • Swims for 5 yards (advanced level: 12.5 yards) to the float or exit location
  • Changes direction to orient toward the exit location
  • Exits safely

AND Performs all but one of the following:

  • Treads for 10 seconds (advanced level: 30 seconds)
  • Swims on back or side for 5 yards (advanced level: 12.5 yards) to the float location
  • Floats for 10 seconds (advanced level: 30 seconds)
  • Locates the exit without verbal or visual assistance
  • Swims on front for 5 yards (advanced level: 12.5 yards) to the exit location
  • Breathing is controlled during each component
  • Completes sequence in specified order; instructor may provide verbal assistance reminding the student of the skill order

3

Performs all of the following:

  • Recovers to the surface
  • Treads for 10 seconds (advanced level: 30 seconds)
  • Swims on back or side for 5 yards (advanced level: 12.5 yards) to the float location
  • Floats for 10 seconds (advanced level: 30 seconds)
  • Locates the exit without verbal or visual assistance
  • Changes direction to orient toward the exit location
  • Swims on front for 5 yards (advanced level: 12.5 yards) to the exit location
  • Exits safely
  • Breathing is controlled during each component
  • Completes sequence in specified order; instructor may provide verbal assistance reminding the student of the skill order