Key Terms #
Affective ability #
The means to process and respond to attitudes, values, and emotions. Attitudes are an enduring and guiding set of outlooks that influence behavior, and values are principles that impact the likelihood of an individual choosing to act or not in a given situation.
Aquatic competence #
The combination of physical, cognitive, and affective abilities equating to an individual's ability to safely interact in, on, and around aquatic environments.
Aquatic motor skills #
The category, or sub-domain, of aquatic safety competencies that require physical interaction with an aquatic environment. To develop these competencies, individual skills must be practiced in the water, although supporting education can occur outside of the water.
Aquatic safety competencies #
The defined taxonomy of aquatic safety education competencies, which include the three sub-domains of: aquatic safety knowledge, aquatic motor skills, and aquatic situation skills.
Aquatic safety education #
The development of aquatic safety competencies, through the acquisition of safety knowledge, physical skills, and situational experience, that are essential to both the avoidance of and the recovery from hazardous aquatic situations.
Aquatic safety knowledge #
The category, or sub-domain, of aquatic safety competencies that are primarily developed through cognitive skills. These competencies require a conceptual understanding of aquatic environments and their potential hazards, as well as the ability to make accurate assessments.
Aquatic situation skills #
The category, or sub-domain, of aquatic safety competencies that require both analytical thinking and physical skills to avoid and recover from hazardous situations.
The evaluation of an individual’s performance and execution of a skill or exercise.
Assistance / Assisted #
Performing a skill or a component of a skill with the use of a structure, instructor, or flotation aid.
Back / On back #
A supineSupineSituated on the back, or dorsal, surface of the body with the face and chest upward. body position such that the face and chest are oriented up. “On back” means to have a supine body position on or near the surface of the water.
The entire physical structure of a person.
The ability or tendency to float on, or to rise to, the surface of the water.
An entirely or mostly controllable environment that is usually man-made. Some of the characteristics include: limited variability in temperature and clarity and a lack of waves, currents, and aquatic flora and fauna.
Cognitive ability #
The means to process, retrieve, and store information and knowledge.
Combination skill / Combined skill #
A set of skills performed in conjunction with one another to increase an individual's ability to interact with water.
The measure of a person’s ability or capacity to perform a task or function (e.g., a skill or a competency).
The knowledge, skill(s), and/or experience necessary to perform a task or function.
Controlled breathing #
Breathing in a consistent and repeating manner that does not interfere with performing a skill.
A sequential movement pattern that is repetitive and may involve movements of both the left and right extremities. One cycle is defined as performing a single repetition of all movements in the pattern and typically include an initial movement to begin the cycle and a final movement to end the cycle.
Transferring from a controlled resting position to initiate a skill with or without momentum depending on the skill (e.g., pushing off a wall or bottom of the pool to initiate a glide).
An exercise that is intended to reinforce the proper performance of specific attributes or techniques of a skill.
For limbs - to fully straighten and reach towards or away from something. For joints - to straighten, not flex.
Float / Floating #
To remain buoyant and suspended on the surface of the water, typically in a stationary position.
Flotation aid #
A kickboard, “noodle”, or other floating device used to aid students with buoyancy during skill training.
The visible shape or configuration of something. Mobility specialists define form as an arrangement of the elements in a composition; the way something (or someone) is shaped or arranged.
Front / On front #
A proneProneSituated on the front, or ventral, surface of the body with the face and chest downward. body position such that the face and chest are oriented down. “On front” means to have a prone body position on or near the surface of the water.
Maintaining directional momentum without active propulsion.
Knowledge objectives #
The cognitive learning goals associated with a competency, skill, activity, lesson, or session/unit.
Situated on one side of the body; one side facing upward and one side downward.
To keep in existence; to continue to have; more than transitionary.
Motor skill #
A learned ability which involves coordinated movement and actions of the body and limbs. Gross motor skills involve the use of the arms, legs, and other large body parts. Fine motor skills involve the use of smaller body parts such as the wrists, hands, fingers, ankles, feet, and toes.
An entirely or mostly uncontrollable environment that is usually not man made. Some of the characteristics include: a high degree of variability in temperature and clarity, a small degree of resistance to the water’s movement, the presence of waves and currents, and the growth of aquatic flora and fauna.
Physical ability #
The means or proficiency to perform a motor skill, or set of skills, correctly and consistently.
Relating to or in the form of a plane.
A two-dimensional surface or division used to reference to or describe the location of a structure or structures of the body.
The particular location the body, or a part of the body, is placed. Mobility specialists define position as the point where something is located, or the posture it's arranged in, such as a “prone position” or “supine position”.
The particular way the body is held while doing an activity. Mobility specialists define posture as the way you position your body or arrange your limbs, such as “to stand up straight with your shoulders back and your chin up.”
Situated on the front, or ventral, surface of the body with the face and chest downward.
To drive, push, or cause to move in a particular direction.
The propulsive phase of a stroke cycle.
The act of returning to a safe location or relaxed position after performing or attempting to perform a skill.
The non-propulsive movement present in an arm stroke cycle (or kick cycle) which resets the arms (or legs) to a position to perform a propulsive movement.
Recurring at uniform intervals; arranged in or consisting of a common or typical pattern.
Resting stroke #
A swim stroke which provides an opportunity to rest during the glide phase of the stroke cycle. Breaststroke, sidestroke, and survival backstroke (a.k.a. elementary backstroke) are categorized as “resting strokes”.
A scoring guide that includes rating scales and descriptions of one or more criteria used to evaluate the performance of a skill.
Safety skill #
A method which improves the ability to interact with water in a way that increases the likelihood of avoiding and/or recovering from a hazardous aquatic situation.
Scoring rubric #
A guide that includes rating scales and descriptions of one or more criteria used to evaluate the performance of a skill.
Scoring rules #
A guide used to evaluate performance of distance or time measured skills that includes descriptions of one or more criteria to determine whether to continue or halt the assessment process.
The order in which movements or tasks are performed.
Shy of #
Less than or short of a location or position.
Side / On side #
A lateralLateralSituated on one side of the body; one side facing upward and one side downward. body position such that one hip and shoulder is oriented up and the opposite hip and shoulder are oriented down. “On side” means to have the body positioned on one side and on or near the surface of the water.
The imitation of a situation or process; such as quickly submerging under the surface of the water to mimic an unexpected entry event.
A physical task which is performed to increase an individual's ability to interact with water and can also serve as a component of more complex methods of interacting and moving through aquatic environments.
A body position characterized by the head and chest oriented to face the same direction, arms extended straight overhead and pinning the ears between them, hands overlapping pointing in the direction of travel, and legs held together and inline with the upper body.
A complex skill involving both arms and legs working in unison with consistent repetitive motions to propel an individual through the water.
Stroke cycle #
A stroke cycle, or sometimes just ‘stroke’, is the sequence of actions that make up the propulsive and recovery phase of an arm cycle.
To drop completely below the surface of the water.
Situated on the back, or dorsal, surface of the body with the face and chest upward.
Survival float #
A stationary surface skill with an emphasis on energy conservation where the face remains at or near the surface, the hips and legs sag below the surface, and limited limb actions are used to maintain buoyancy and position.
Survival stroke #
A swim stroke that, for less experienced individuals, can be performed for longer period of times due to less stringent breathing and/or timing patterns and can provide unique vision opportunities relative to another stroke. Breaststroke, sidestroke, and survival backstroke (a.k.a. elementary backstroke) are categorized as “survival strokes”.
Swim / Swimming #
To move forward through the water using one’s limbs against the water as the primary propulsive force.
The main part of the body, not including the head, neck, and limbs. Synonym of trunkTrunkThe main part of the body, not including the head, neck, and limbs. Synonym of torsoTorsoThe main part of the body, not including the head, neck, and limbs. Synonym of trunkTrunkThe main part of the body, not including the head, neck, and limbs. Synonym of torso□□
Tread / Treading #
To maintain an upright position in the water by moving the arms and legs in a repetitive motion, typically in a stationary position.
The main part of the body, not including the head, neck, and limbs. Synonym of torsoTorsoThe main part of the body, not including the head, neck, and limbs. Synonym of trunkTrunkThe main part of the body, not including the head, neck, and limbs. Synonym of torsoTorsoThe main part of the body, not including the head, neck, and limbs. Synonym of trunk□□
Performing a skill or a component of a skill without the use of a structure, instructor, or flotation aid.